Facts about Pterosaurs, an extinct prehistoric animal

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Dinosaur Jungle   >   Other Prehistoric Animals   >   Pterosaurs

Pterosaurs



Pterosaur
Click here for more Pterosaur Pictures

Scientific Classification
  Kingdom Animalia
  Phylum Chordata
  Class Sauropsida
  (unranked) Archosauria
  Order Pterosauria
Pterosaurs (which means "winged lizard") which are also sometimes popularly known as "Pterodactyls" (which means "winged finger") were winged reptiles that evolved during the late Triassic period, about 220 million years ago, and survived until the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, about 65 million years ago. Although contemporary with the dinosaurs, Pterosaurs were not dinosaurs, although they were also members of the Archosaur group of reptiles (the group that also includes dinosaurs, birds, crocodilians, and Champsosaurs).

The smallest Pterosaurs were about the size of a small bird, but the largest, such as Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of as much as 36 feet (11 meters). Most (or perhaps even) all smaller Pterosaur species seemed to have died out before the end of the Cretaceous period, and it is thought that this might have been due to competition from birds. By the time of the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, only the Pterosaurs survived, and these of course died out during that extinction.

Pterosaurs evolved flight independently and separately from birds, but incorporated a number of bird-like features. Their bones were hollow and air filled, which reduced their weight, that had breastbone to which they flight muscles were attached, and they seem to have brain adaptations which would have helped them fly. It was once thought that Pterosaurs were mainly gliders, but today many scientists believe that atleast some species were active flyers.

Pterosaurs wings were a membrane that stretched from an elongated fourth finger of each arm, and joined to the body. Some paleontologists have argued that the wing membrane would also have joined to the hind limbs, but others say this would not have been the case - it is also possible that the extent of the wing membrane depended on the particular species. It is also known that atleast some Pterosaurs had webbed feet, and while it is possible that these may have been used for swimming, it is also possible that they may have assisted in flying.

There is also evidence that at least some species of Pterosaurs had hair. Pterosaur hair evolved independently of mammalian hair, and would have a different structure, although similar function to that of a mammals. The presence of hair suggests that Pterosaurs were probably warm-blooded ("endothermic").

When walking on the ground, Pterosaurs probably had a semi-erect posture. There was once much debate about whether they walked on two legs (bipedally) or four legs (quadrupedally), but fossil tracks that have been found, show they were quadrupeds.

The first Pterosaur fossil was found in 1784 by Cosimo Collini, who believed he had found a sea creature (although the eminent naturalist Georges Cuvier suggested that Pterosaurs were flying creatures as early as 1801, the aquatic hypothesis about the creatures continued to be supported by some scientists until at least the 1830s). Other early discoveries include a find of the Pterosaur Dimorphodon by Mary Anning in Lyme Regis, England in 1828.

Today, at least 60 different genera of Pterosaurs are known, and fossil have been found in every continent except Antarctica. Since Pterosaur bones were hollow, unfortunately they tended to be crushed when buried under sediments, so many fossils are poorly preserved. However, fortunately there is an exception - for some unknown reason the bones in Pterosaurs found in the Araripe Plateau in Brazil were not crushed during the fossilization process. Additionally, as already noted, fossil Pterosaur trackways have been found. Furthermore, one fossil Pterosaur egg has been found - which although squashed, was not cracked (suggesting Pterosaur eggs were soft and leathery) - contained an embryo containing well-developed wing membranes.

Because Pterosaur fossils are not always well-preserved, and there are many gaps in the fossil record, there has been much debate about how Pterosaurs evolved, and how to classify them. Traditionally, Pterosaurs are generally classified into two suborders - the Rhamphorhynchoidea, which were "primitive" Pterosaurs, with long tails and fingers adapted to climbing - and the Pterodactyloidea, which were "advanced" Pterosaurs, with shorter tails, long wing metacarpals.

Fossils of Pterosaurs have been found around the world including in England, Norway, the united States, Mexico, South America, and Australia.

Pterosaurs Timeline:



Pterosaurs were winged reptiles that lived between 220 and 65 million years ago

Pterosaurs were winged reptiles that lived between 220 and 65 million years ago


Related Information & Resources


See Also

Pterosaur Books


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Pterosaurs: Natural History, Evolution, Anatomy
By Mark P. Witton

imusti
Hardcover (304 pages)

Pterosaurs: Natural History, Evolution, Anatomy
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  • Princeton University Press
Product Description:

For 150 million years, the skies didn't belong to birds--they belonged to the pterosaurs. These flying reptiles, which include the pterodactyls, shared the world with the nonavian dinosaurs until their extinction 65 million years ago. Some pterosaurs, such as the giant azhdarchids, were the largest flying animals of all time, with wingspans exceeding thirty feet and standing heights comparable to modern giraffes. This richly illustrated book takes an unprecedented look at these astonishing creatures, presenting the latest findings on their anatomy, ecology, and extinction.



Pterosaurs features some 200 stunning illustrations, including original paintings by Mark Witton and photos of rarely seen fossils. After decades of mystery, paleontologists have finally begun to understand how pterosaurs are related to other reptiles, how they functioned as living animals, and, despite dwarfing all other flying animals, how they managed to become airborne. Here you can explore the fossil evidence of pterosaur behavior and ecology, learn about the skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of pterosaurs, and consider the newest theories about their cryptic origins. This one-of-a-kind book covers the discovery history, paleobiogeography, anatomy, and behaviors of more than 130 species of pterosaur, and also discusses their demise at the end of the Mesozoic.


  • The most comprehensive book on pterosaurs ever published

  • Features some 200 illustrations, including original paintings by the author

  • Covers every known species and major group of pterosaurs

  • Describes pterosaur anatomy, ecology, behaviors, diversity, and more

  • Encourages further study with 500 references to primary pterosaur literature

Pterosaur in the Hardware Store
By Julia Inserro

Julia Inserro
Paperback (32 pages)

Pterosaur in the Hardware Store
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Could there really be dinosaurs in the hardware store? Leah and Milo didn’t think so, but then they spotted their first Stegosaurus and the adventure began! Join them in their imaginative dinosaur hunt and see how many you can spot!

"Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited, whereas imagination encircles the world."
-Albert Einstein
Great fun for boys and girls.
Perfect for ages 4-8.
Searching for Ropens and Finding God: The quest for discovering modern pterosaurs ("flying dinosaurs")
By Jonathan David Whitcomb

CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
Paperback (360 pages)

Searching for Ropens and Finding God: The quest for discovering modern pterosaurs ("flying dinosaurs")
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Fly above common true-life adventures, and dive into what may become the most unsettling scientific discovery since Copernicus and Galileo: living pterosaurs of the modern world----what a discovery!

It soars above disputes about religion, revealing why an official discovery of an extraordinary animal has been delayed for so long. Above all, this explores human experience: eyewitnesses and those who interviewed them. People have become connected by common encounters; persons of various faiths, with various levels of education, from various countries and cultures, have seen a living pterosaur, commonly called "pterodactyl."

Notwithstanding the delay in the official scientific discovery, eyewitnesses from around the world continue to encounter these flying creatures: featherless, long-tailed, often larger than any known bird.

A few Americans explored a few islands in the southwest Pacific, in brief expeditions scattered between 1993 and 2007, looking for a modern pterosaur. "Creationist" each man was labeled, yet many of those following them, in recent years, carried no religious purpose.

The creatures have many names: seklo-bali, duwas, wawanar, indava, kor, kundua. In Papua New Guinea, natives in isolated communities speak in village languages numbering in the hundreds, yet many natives carry a common fear in the dark: a huge glowing creature flying in the night. Natives on Umboi Island call it "ropen."

Three American Christians----one middle-aged LDS-Mormon high priest and two younger Protestant Young Earth Creationists----explored parts of Umboi Island in two separate expeditions in 2004, interviewing native eyewitnesses of the elusive ropen. They returned home even more convinced that long-tailed pterosaurs live, even thrive, in Papua New Guinea.

This resulted in the publication of several books, two scientific papers in a peer-reviewed journal, and over a thousand blog posts, written mostly by those who trudged the jungle trails of Umboi themselves and spoke with the eyewitnesses face to face.

Those two expeditions in 2004 also cleared the path for other searches in Papua New Guinea and elsewhere, including expeditions led by those with no religious purpose in searching for ropens, namely the Destination Truth and Monsterquest television shows.

This book illustrates how we succeed better by working with those of different faiths in pursuing a common goal, in this case finding a modern living pterosaur and supporting each other in our common beliefs and values.

Why has the official scientific discovery been so long delayed? The causes are multiple and interrelated, but one obstacle has been resolved. Speculation that religious bias of investigators has played a big part in sighting reports of apparent pterosaurs----that conjecture has been shot down.

Consider the words of Sandra Paradise, an eyewitness in Georgia: "The world is now totally different. I feel blessed that God has allowed me to see this creature that should not be here, and yet is, this strange dragon-like thing that lives somewhere in the woods . . ."

Steven Cottingham, a government official in New Guinea many years ago, told the author, "My sighting occurred at night near Lab Lab on the southern tip of Umboi. The light lasted for four to five seconds, and until reading your reports now, have never been able to explain the sighting."

The American flight instructor Duane Hodgkinson told the author about his encounter with a long-tailed flying creature in New Guinea: "It was a big one! I have a Piper Tri-Pacer airplane [wingspan twenty nine feet] and it appeared to be about that size."

Patty Carson, of Southern California, said, "It did have a tail and it had a diamond shaped tip . . . The skin was a leathery, brownish reddish color. It had little teeth, a LOT of them."
Nature's Giants: The Biology and Evolution of the World's Largest Lifeforms
By Graeme D. Ruxton

Yale University Press
Released: 2019-02-26
Hardcover (224 pages)

Nature s Giants: The Biology and Evolution of the World s Largest Lifeforms
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A beautifully illustrated exploration of the science behind the awe-inspiring giants of past and present
 
The colossal plants and animals of our world—dinosaurs, whales, and even trees—are a source of unending fascination, and their sheer scale can be truly impressive. Size is integral to the way that organisms experience the world: a puddle that a human being would step over without thinking is an entire world to thousands of microscopic rotifers. But why are creatures the size that they are? Why aren’t bugs the size of elephants, or whales the size of goldfish?
 
In this lavishly illustrated new book, biologist Graeme Ruxton explains how and why nature’s giants came to be so big—for example, how decreased oxygen levels limited the size of insects and how island isolation allowed small-bodied animals to evolve larger body sizes. Through a diverse array of examples, from huge butterflies to giant squid, Ruxton explores the physics, biology, and evolutionary drivers behind organism size, showing what it’s like to live large.
Live Pterosaurs in America: Not extinct, flying creatures of cryptozoology that some call pterodactyls or flying dinosaurs or prehistoric birds
By Jonathan David Whitcomb

CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
Paperback (154 pages)

Live Pterosaurs in America: Not extinct, flying creatures of cryptozoology that some call pterodactyls or flying dinosaurs or prehistoric birds
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Encounter eyewitness accounts of living pterosaurs in the United States. Live "pterodactyls?" In the United States? Many scientists have long assumed all pterosaurs died millions of years ago. Now take a whirlwind tour of many years of investigations in cryptozoology, and prepare for a shock: At least two species of pterosaurs have survived, uncommon, not so much rare as widely, thinly distributed.

Nocturnal pterosaurs have always lived among us, but hidden by something. Enter now the realm of a new branch of cryptozoology, a branch overshadowed by the dogma of a "universal extinction." How did scientists miss living pterosaurs? Get the answers here, hidden secrets about how these amazing flying creatures of the night have gone mostly unreported: Until recently, almost nobody would listen to eyewitnesses; but for the past seven years many of them have been interviewed by the author of this book.

Many modern pterosaurs are much larger than any bat, many with long tails, many with head crests. What about news headlines? How did these creatures avoid media attention? Get the answers from years of work by American cryptozoologists.

The old "fruit bat" explanation for reports of pterosaurs in Papua New Guinea--that bat idea has now been shot down; the tail length of the larger Rhamphorhynchoid-like flying creatures has been estimated at a minimum of ten feet and a maximum of over twenty feet. More shocking, these giant long-tailed flying creatures are not confined to the southwest Pacific: They are seen in the contiguous United States of America. Most pterosaurs in North America, however, are smaller, with many wingspan estimates at less than fifteen feet; nevertheless, how shocking!

What amazing encounters! In California, New Mexico, Texas, Arkansas, Florida, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and many other states, eyewitnesses have seen strange featherless creatures flying overhead. These are not bats; most have long tails and are bigger than any bat. Dive into eyewitness testimonies; compare sightings through the author's detailed analysis. Third edition, nonfiction.
Can I Bring My Pterodactyl to School, Ms. Johnson? (Prehistoric Pets)
By Lois G. Grambling

Charlesbridge
Released: 2006-02-01
Paperback (32 pages)

Can I Bring My Pterodactyl to School, Ms. Johnson? (Prehistoric Pets)
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  • Charlesbridge Publishing
Product Description:
Kids are in for Jurassic-sized laughs as they follow a boy in his quest to bring a pterodactyl to school. And not just any pterodactyl: this one wards off bullies, loves to read stories, and makes an excellent science display. Hilarious illustrations capture the madcap imagination of the determined hero and his creative pleas to his teacher.
Live Pterosaurs in America, second edition: Eyewitness Reports of Pterosaurs in the Contiguous United States
By Jonathan David Whitcomb

CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
Paperback (146 pages)

Live Pterosaurs in America, second edition: Eyewitness Reports of Pterosaurs in the Contiguous United States
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Product Description:
This is the second edition before an expansion at the end of the appendix in the third edition. Look for the third edition, also titled "Live Pterosaurs in America."

Live "pterodactyls?" In the United States? Many scientists have long assumed all pterosaurs died millions of years ago. Now take a whirlwind tour of many years of investigations in cryptozoology, and prepare for a shock: At least two pterosaur species have survived, uncommon, not so much rare as widely and thinly distributed.

Nocturnal pterosaurs have always lived among us, but hidden by something. Enter now the realm of a new branch of cryptozoology, a branch overshadowed by the dogma of a "universal extinction." How did scientists miss living pterosaurs? Get the answers here, hidden secrets about how these amazing flying creatures of the night have gone mostly unreported: Until recently, almost nobody would listen to eyewitnesses; but for the past seven years many of them have been interviewed by the author of this book.

Many modern pterosaurs are much larger than any bat, many with long tails, many with head crests. What about news headlines? How did these creatures avoid media attention? Get the answers from years of work by American cryptozoologists. The old "fruit bat" explanation for reports of pterosaurs in Papua New Guinea--that bat idea has now been shot down; the tail length of the larger creatures has been estimated at a minimum of ten feet and a maximum of over twenty feet.

More shocking, these giant long-tailed flying creatures are not confined to the southwest Pacific: They are seen in the contiguous United States of America. Most pterosaurs in North America, however, are smaller, with many wingspan estimates at less than fifteen feet; nevertheless, how shocking! What amazing encounters! In California, New Mexico, Texas, Arkansas, Florida, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and many other states, eyewitnesses have seen strange featherless creatures flying overhead. These are not bats; most have long tails and are bigger than any bat.

Dive into eyewitness testimonies; compare sightings through the author's detailed analysis. Expanded second edition, nonfiction
When Dinos Dawned, Mammals Got Munched, and Pterosaurs Took Flight: A Cartoon PreHistory of Life in the Triassic (National Geographic Kids)
By Hannah Bonner

National Geographic Children's Books
Released: 2012-04-10
Hardcover (48 pages)

When Dinos Dawned, Mammals Got Munched, and Pterosaurs Took Flight: A Cartoon PreHistory of Life in the Triassic (National Geographic Kids)
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In the style of WHEN BUGS WERE BIG and WHEN FISH GOT FEET this book discusses all the exciting developments of the Triassic Age, from the recovery of the planet from the most deadly mass extinction ever, to the first appearance of the dinosaurs. We also get to meet the first mammals, the first pterosaurs (flying reptiles), the first frogs, a host of predatory marine reptiles, early turtles, and the first coral reefs.  With the books' signature blend of humor and clearly presented information, cartoon illustrations help keep the fact-filled material extra fun.

National Geographic supports K-12 educators with ELA Common Core Resources.
Visit www.natgeoed.org/commoncore for more information.
A Field Guide to Mesozoic Birds and Other Winged Dinosaurs
By Matthew P. Martyniuk

Pan Aves
Paperback (194 pages)

A Field Guide to Mesozoic Birds and Other Winged Dinosaurs
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Product Description:
A comprehensive illustrated guide to the birds of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods and their dinosaurian forebears. Each species is illustrated in multiple views with size and distinguishing features highlighted. Includes introduction summarizing current research into bird origins and evolution, and what we know (and don't know) about the life appearance and habits of the first birds.
Dinosaurs: The Textbook
By Spencer Lucas

imusti
Released: 2016-05-17
Paperback (392 pages)

Dinosaurs: The Textbook
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  • University Press Group Ltd
Product Description:
Geared towards a broad variety of students, Dinosaurs: The Textbook, sixth edition, is a concise and lucid presentation of the biological and geological concepts of dinosaur science. It clarifies the evolution, phylogeny, and classification of the various species while modeling the best approach for navigating new and existing research. Revised to reflect recent fossil discoveries and the current consensus on dinosaur science, this text moves through the major taxonomic groups―including theropods, sauropodomorphs, ornithopods, ceratopsians, pachycephalosaurs, stegosaurs, and ankylosaurs―and concludes with updated chapters on the behavior and extinction of the dinosaurs, their biological relationship to birds, and their representation (or misrepresentation) in art, literature, film, and other forms of popular culture.

The sixth edition represents a major revision of the leading text for an introductory course on dinosaurs, including comprehensive updates based on the latest scientific discoveries, research, and literature. With an extensive art program revised by leading paleoartists that features cutting-edge illustrations, it is a complete reader-friendly pedagogical package with extensive end-of-chapter summary tools, review questions, a detailed glossary, a dinosaur dictionary, and a comprehensive index.

Please visit our supplemental materials page (https://cup.columbia.edu/extras/supplement/dinosaurs-the-textbook-sixth-edition) to find study and teaching aides for both students and teachers using Dinosaurs: The Textbook, sixth edition in class.


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